Makalah Bahasa Inggris (English Grammar)

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

UNIT I

QUESTION TAG

  • Question Tag : Pertanyaan tambahan yang dipendekkan, digunakan untuk mengharapkan jawaban setuju ( kebenaran atau penegasan) atas suatu pernyataan / statement yang disampaikan. Biasanya terletak dibelakang kalimat.

Example : kalimat nominal = You are a student, are’t you?

                                                 You are not a student, are you?

                 Kalimat verbal    = They don’t go to school, do they?

                                                Ani goes to the school, doesn’t she?

Tag Question dalam positive statement.

Jika statmentnya negatif (+) maka Tag Questionnya negatif (-)

1. Menggunakan modals, to be, to have.

a). menggunakan modals auxiliary ( berhubungan dengan perasaan )

    seperti can, will, dsb.

    Example : You must go now, mustn’t you?

                      You can swim well, can not you?

2. Menggunakan kata kerja bantu “to be”

    Example: She is a teacher, isn’t she?

3. Menggunakan kata kerja bantu “to have”

    Example: He has a lot of book, hasn’t he?

                     I have to buy some matches, haven’t I ?

b). Tag Question yang mengandung statment verb seperti “do, does, did”

    Example: You like coffee, don’t you?

                     His wife cooks well, doesn’t she?

                     You broke the window, didn’t you?

c). Tag Question yang menggunakan “they” sebagai subject untuk everybody, everyone, somebody, someone.

    Example: Everyone warned you, didn’t they?

                     Someone had recognized him, hadn’t they?

Tag Question dalam negative statment 

Jika statmentnya negatif (-) maka Tag-nya adalah positif (+)

              a). Tag Question dari kalimat yang menggunakan modals (auxiliary), to be, to have.

              1. Modals → I mustn’t be late, must I ?

                                    They oughtn‘t to be here, ought I ?

              2. To be → I am not so fast so you, am I ?

                                It’s not holiday today, is it?

            3. To have → He hadn’t met you before, had he?

                                   Tom hasn’t got colour TV, has he?

            b). Tag Question yang mengandung “do, does, did”

                  Example: Boys do not like to wash, do they?

                                   You do not like sugar, do you?

c). Statment yang mengandung kata-kata seperti: Neither, None, Nobody, Nothing, Scarcely, Rarely, Hardly, Ever, Seldom, dianggap sebagai negatif.

      Example: None of your friends liked the film, did they?

                      Nobody cheated on the best, did they?

Kalimat Perintah (Command)

Untuk membentuk kalimat perintah Tag Question adalah “will you”

Example: Please close the door, will you?

                Please be careful, will you?

v  Kalimat Ajakan (Request)

Untuk membuat kalimat ajakan, kita menggunakan Tag Question “shall we”

Example: Let’s go home together, shall we?

                Let’s play football now, shall we?

v  Tag Question untuk complex sentence

Untuk membuat Tag Question-nya bukan pada induk kalimat (main clause) tapi pada anak kalimat (sub-clause)

Example: I think that you are clever, aren’t you?

                We hope you are happy, aren’t you?

Notes;

  • “ I am” biasanya mempunyai Tag dengan “Aren’t”

Example : I am very late, aren’t I?

                 I am very stupid, aren’t I?

  • “ Let’s” menpunyai Tag dengan “Shall”

Example : Let’s read aloud, shall we?

                 Let’s pretend we’re not here, shall we?

                 Let’s go, shall we?

  • “Used to” dapat mempunyai Tag dengan “did”

Example : You used to leave in Bandung, didn’t you?

                  You used to smoke a pipe, didn’t you?

BAB II ADVERB

Adverb yaitu suatu kata yang menerangkan tentang kata kerja, kata sifat, waktu, keadaan sekitar dan kata keterangan lainnya selain kata benda. Ada beberapa adverb dalam bahasa inggris antara lain:

A. Adverb of place (keterangan tempat)

Adalah adverb yang menerangkan tempat di mana suatu peristiwa atau kejadian dilakukan.

Adverb of place menjawab pertanyaan “where” dan biasanya ditempatkan sesudah direct object (object langsung) atau kata kerja.

Meliputi misalnya → here, there, every where, at home, in the office, in Bandung, inside, outside,dsb.

Example: – where do you live? I live in Bandung.

-          They are in the livingroom

-          My sister is at home

B. Adverb of time (keterangan waktu)

Yaitu adverb yang menerangkan waktu kapan sesuatu peristiwa atau kejadian yang dilakukan.

Adverb of time menjawab pertanyaan “when” atau “what time” dan dapat ditempatkan di depan atau di akhir kalimat.

Yang termasuk adverb of time:, yesterday, tomorrow, in the morning, today, now at 6 o’clock, in April, dll.

Example: – when did you come from Jakarta?

                   I came from Jakarta yesterday

                – The English teacher will teach us tomorrow

                – He will watch the film tonight

C. Adverb of manner (keterangan cara)

Yaitu adverb yang menerangkan  cara bagaimana atau dengan jalanbagaimana sesuatu tersebut terjadi atau dilakukan.

Adverb of manner menjawab pertanyaan “how”.

Yang termasuk adverb of manner adalah: slowly, quickly, fluently, politely, lazily, happily, easily, dll.

Example: – How does he work? He works lazily

-          He drivers the car slowly.

-          They do the test carefully.

D. Adverbs of degree (tingkatan)keterangan

Yaitu adverb yang menerangkan dalam tingkatan bagaimana sesuatu dilakukan. Adverb ini menjawab pertanyaan “in what degree” dan biasanya ditempatkan sebelum kata sifat (adjective) atau adverb.

Yang termasuk adverb of degree: little, rather (agak), quite (sangat), extremely (luar biasa), etc.

Example: – In what degree do you know him?

                   I know him little.

                – He is too young to study English

                – She is very diligent in the class.

E. Adverbs of frequency ( keterangan frekuensi)

Yaitu adverb yang menerangkan sering tidaknya suatu peristiwa atau kejadian dilakukan atau terjadi.

Adverb ini menjawab pertanyaan “how often” dan biasanya ditempatkan sesudah kata kerja atau sesudah subject.

Yang termasuk adverb of frequency: alway, sometimes, often, usually, ever, never, generally, commany, ravely, seldom, etc.

 Example: – We never study English on Sunday

   – How often do you go to to th movie?

          I go to the movie sometimes

         – I always go to school at 6 o’clock.

F. Interrogative adverb

Yaitu adverb yang digunakan untuk menanyakan suatu kejadian atau peristiwa. Adverb ini berupa kata tanya seperti what, which, when, why, where yang umumnya ditempatkan di awal kalimat.

Example: – What did you do last nigt?

                  -When will you go to Jakarta?

G. Relatif Adverb

     Yaitu adverb yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan antara satu kalimat dengan yang lain. Adverb ini berupa kata tanya seperti “ What, when, why, where, how, etc.”dan diletakkan ditengah-tengah kalimat.

Example : I don’t know why he always comes late

                 Do you know how to operate computer

Notes : Cara membentuk adverb of manner ( keterangan cara)

1. Umumnya adverb ini dibentuk dengan menambahkan akhiran “ ly” pada adjectivenya:

Adjective                 Adverb                  Artinya
                  Calm

Honest

Glad

Perfect                Calmly

Honestly

Gladly

Perfectly              Dengan tenang

Dengan jujur

Dengan baik

Dengan sempurna

         Example: – He is a calm worker ( ia seorang pekerja yang tenang ) = adjective

                – He works calmly ( ia bekerja dengan tenang ) = adverb

2. Kata sifat yang berakhiran huruf “ y” maka huruf “y”diganti dengan “i” lalu ditambah dengan “ly”

              Adjective                 Adverb                 Artinya
Busy Busily             Dengan sibuknya
                  Easy                  Easily             Dengan mudah
                 Happy                 Happily              Dengan bahagia.

Example: – He is a busy man ( adjective )

                – He works busily (adver)

3. Kata sifat yang berakhiran huruf “L” ditambah dengan ly, maka huruf “L”nya double

            Adjective Adverb Artinya
           Beautiful Beautifully Dengan cantiknya
           Careful               Carefully          Dengan hati-hati
         Peaceful Peacefully Dengan damai

Example: – She is beatiful (adjective)

                – She dancer beautifully (adverb)

Namun, ada beberapa kata sifat yang tidak bisa disusun seperti pola diatas. Yakni memiliki bentuk yang sama persisi dengan adverbnya, yang bisa berfungsi sebagai kata keterangan tanpa ditambah “ly”. Yaitu:

Adjective                Adverb               Artinya
                 Early

Fast

Hard

Late                 Early

Fast

Hard

LateDengan lambat

Dengan cepat

Dengan keras

Dengan lambat

Cara menidentifikasi bentuk kata tersebut apabila disusun dalam suatu kalimat, berikut uraiannya:

-          apabila kata tersebut berada setelah kata kerja, itu berarti kata keterangan

ex: Tye runn fast

-          apabila kata tersebut berada setelah “to be” mka kata tersebut adalah kata sifat.

Ex: This test is hard to do

Ada beberapa kata kerja yang tidak boleh diikuti oleh kata keterangan yang berakhiran “ly”.

Misalnya: Look, become, get, taste, appear, grow, seem, soun, feel, tunr, smoll.

Sekelompaok kata kerja tersebut dinamakan Linking Verb / kata kerja penghubung yang bisa diikuti oleh kata sifat.

Ex : – Farida looks beautiful ( benar )

       – Farida looks beautifully ( salah )

Comparasion of Adverb (Perbandingan Kata Keterangan)

Setiap ketentuan yang berlaku dalam abjective berlaku pula dalam comparasion of adverb.

1. Adverb yang pendek, mendapat akhiran “er” untuk komparatif (tingkat lebih) dan mendapat akhiran “est” superlative (tingkat paling).

Ex : – This bus is as fast as than motorcycle ( adjective )

          Rudy works as fast as I do ( adverb )

         – This bus is not as fast as than one ( adjective )

            Rudy doesn’t work as fast as I do ( adverb )

         – This bus is the fastest one ( adjective )

            Rudy works the fastest among us ( adverb )

2. Adverbs yang lebih panjang mendapat awalan “more” untuk comparative dan mendapat awalan “most” untuk superlative.

Ex : – Rudy is as happy as I am

          Rudy works as happily as I do

        – Rudy is happier than I am

           Rudy works more happily than I do

        – Rudy is the happiest among us

          Rudy works the most happily in the office

3. Ketentuan mengenai tingkat perbandingan yang tak berurutan untuk adjective berlaku pula bagi adverb.

Ex : – This book is as good as yours

          He studies as well as I do

        – This book is better than yours

          He studies better than I do

        – This book is the best in the class

           He studies the best among

UNIT III PRONOUN

Pronoun adalah kata-kata yang dapat berfungsi sebagai suatu ungkapan untuk kumpulan kata benda secara keseluruhan yang berada dalam subject dan object dari suatu anak kalimat, atau juga sebagai penentu dari suatu ungkapan kata benda.

Pronoun, dengan sifat-sifatnya dapat dikelompokkan sebagai berikut:

1. Demonstrative Pronoun, yang meliputi: This, Thet, These, dan Those.

    Singular : This dan That

    Plural     : These dan Those

a. Demonstrative pronoun sebagai subject,

    ex : This is my brother, those are Tom’s brother.

           This is my book, that is yours.

b. Demonstrative pronoun sebagai object.

    Ex : I like this ( book )

            I bought this ( picture ) in London.

2. Interrogative Pronoun, yang meliputi : Who, Which, Whom, dan Whose.

For persons:

-      Subject  : who dan which

-      Object   :  whom, who, dan which

-      Possesive: whose

For things :

-      Subject  :  what dan which

-      Object   :  what dan which

Example : Interrogative pronoun sebagai subject

-      Who took my book? Tom took it

-      Which of them is the eldest? Mary is the eldist.

                 Interrogative pronoun sebagai object

-          Whom didi you pay? She paid Jeri and me.

-          Which univercity did he go to? He went to Syamsul Ulum

              Interrogative pronoun sebagai possesive

-          Whose are these? They are Jeri’s

3. Negation Pronoun, meliputi no, nobody, no one, etc.

Personal Non pesonal
Singular           No one, nobody                  Nothing
     Singular and Plural             None (of no)               None (of no)

Example : – There isn;t any butter left / There is no butter left

-          None of them “has/have” arrived

4. Personal and Reflexive Pronoun, meliputi I, my, mine, my self, etc.

      Subject       Obeject      Possesive
Singular   First person

Second person

Third person           I

You

He/She/It          Me

You

Him/Her/It      Mine

Yours

His/Hers

PluralFirst person

Second person

Third person         We

You

They           Us

You

Them         Ours

Yours

Theirs

Example :

  • Personal pronoun sebagai subject

-          He was late as usual

-          They live here

-          She knows you

  • Personal pronoun sebagai object

-          I saw him yesterday ( direct object )

-          Wiil you give him my regand? ( indirect object )

-          Where is Tom? That’s him over there.

  • Personal pronoun sebagai possesive

-          This is my pen/ This is mine

-          This is their house/ This is theirs

5. Reflexive Pronoun.

                                                                Personal Pronoun                  Reflexive
                                                   Subject      Object     Possesive            Pronoun
First                   Singular                 I             me           mine                   myself
Person                Plural                   we            us             ours                ourselves
Second              Singular
Person                 Plural                                 you           yours               yourselves
Third person     Singular                he            him           his                     herself
                                                       she           her            hers                   herself
                       Plural                     they           them         theirs              themselves

Example : – The soldiers tried to depend themselves

-          We have to find ourselves a new home

6. Reciprocal Pronoun, meliputi each, other, dan one another.

    One another dan each other dapat igunakan dengan dua atau lebih, tetapi one another pada umumnya dipakai kalau lebih dari dua.

Example : – Tom and Mery looked at each other.

                – Tom and Mery like each other.

                – The four children were very fond of one another.

                – He up all the books on top of one another.

7. Relative Pronoun, yang meliputi, who, whom, whose, which, dan that.

           Subject          Object        Possesive
For person              Who

That   Who/whom

That          Whose

-For things             Which

That        Which

That  Whose/of which

-

  • Relative Pronoun sebagai subject

For person : who, that.

For things : which, that.

Example : – The film is about a group of people who are trapped in a lift.

-          Have you met anybody that has been to Europa.

-          There’s still one thing which is not explained.

  • Relative Pronoun sebagai object.

For person : who/whom, that.

For things : which, that.

Example : – Do you know the boy that we met?

                    Do you know the boy who we met?

-          That’s the house that I’ve bought.

That’s the house which I’ve bought.

  • Relative Pronoun sebagai possesive.

For person : whose.

For things : whose/of whict.

Example : – The film is about a spy whose wife betrays him.

-          People whose rents have raised can appeal.

8. Quantifier Pronoun, meliputi some, any, every, all, both, several, etc.

        Singular            Plural         Singular
                1                 2                 3                4

AAll(of)

Each(of)

-

Half(of)All(of)

-

Both(of)

Half(of)All(of)

-

-

Half(of)

BSome(of)

Any(of)

Either(of)Some(of)

Any(of)

-Some(of)

Any(of)

-

C-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-Many(of)

More(of)

Most(of)

Eneough(of)

(a) few (of)

Fewer/less(of)

Fewest(of)

Several(of)Much(of)

More(of)

Most(of)

Enough(of)

(a) little (of)

Less(of)

Least(of)

-

-

None(of)DOne(of)–ENone(of)

Neither(of)None(of)

-

Example A : – I got all the things you asked for.

 – All the people in the room clapped.

 – Both carpets have been cleaned.

Example B : – Some idiot parked his car outside my garage.

 – Any book about riding will tell you how to saddle a horse.

 – Did any chairs get broken?

Example C : - Most food is expensive these days

                       Most things are expensive these days.

 – There’s only a few minutes before the train leaves.

    There’s only a little time before the train leaves

UNIT IV THE PASSIVE VOICE

Untuk membuat kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris yang mempunyai arti “di”, kita bisa menyusunnya dengan menggunakan pola “to be + verb III”. Kalimat itu dinamakn Passive Voice/kalimat pasif. Kalimat pasif adalah perubahan dari kalimat aktif tanpa mengubah arti atau maksud secara keseluruhan. Kalimat pasif dibentuk dari objek kalimat aktif menjadi subjek kalimat pasif.

Rumus umum : To be + verb III

Example : Aktiv : I write a letter

Pasif : A letter is written by me.

Macam-macam kalimat pasif sesuai polanya:

1. Kalimat pasif bentuk Simple Present

Pola : Subject + to be( is, are, am) + verb III

Aktive : She kills two birds.

Passive : Two birds are by her.

2. Kalimat pasif dalam bentuk Simple Past

Pola : Subject + to be(was, werw) + verb III

Active : She killed two birds.

Passive : Two birds were killed by her.

Pola : “to be” (was/ were)

                             I

He

She

It

Was                           You

They

We

Were

3. Kalimat pasif dalam bentuk “Present Continuous Tense”

Pola : Subject + to be(is, am, are) + being + verb III

Actife : She is killing two birds.

Passive : Two birds are being killed by her.

4. Kalimat pasif yang menggunakan “Modal Auxiliaries”

Pola : Subject + Modals + be + verb III

Active : He will build a new house in Surabaya.

Passive : A new house will be built by him in Surabaya.

5. Kalimat pasif yang menggunakan kata bantu “have/has” ( present perfect )

Pola : Subject + have/has + been + verb III

Active : We have bought a magazine.

Passive : A magazine has been bought by us.

6. Past Continuous Tense

Pola : Subject + to be (was, were) being + verb III

-          Active : I was repairing the car.

Passive : The car was being repairid by me.

-          Active : andrew was borrowing a dictionary in the library.

Passive : a dictionary was being borrowed by andrew in the library.

7. Past Future Tense

Pola : Subject + would / should / could + be + verb III

-          Active : Jack would finish the homework.

Passive : The homework would be finished by Jack.

-          Active  : Ani would wach the television.

Passive : The television would be watced by Ani.

8. Past Perfect Tense

Pola : Subject + had + been + verb III

Active : I had watered the flower whwn you came.

Passive : The flower had been watered by me whwn you came.

9. Present Future Tense.

Pola : Subject + will have + been + verb III

-          Active : Thet man will have taught English hare.

Passive : English will have been taught by that man here.

-          Active : We will have renovated the Borobudur temple.

Passive : The Borobudur temple will have been renovated by us.

10. Past Future Perfect Tense.

Pola : Subject + would have + been + verb III

-          Active : I would have written a book.

Passive : a boo would have been written by me.

-          Active : Jack will have given me a book.

Passive : A book will have been given to me by Jack.

11. Present Future Continuous Tense.

Pola : Subject + will + be + being + verb III

-          Active : The servant will be cleaning the floor.

Passive : The floor will be being cleaned by the servant.

-          Active : Farida will be driving a car.

Passive : a car will be being driven by Farida.

12. Past Future Continuous Tense

Pola : Subject + would / should + be + being + verb III

-          Active : My father would be buying a new car.

Passive : A new car would be being bought by my father.

-          Active : My uncle would be planting the carrot.

Passive : The carrot would be being planted by my uncle.

13. Present Perfect continuous Tense.

Pola : Subject + has / have + been + verb III

-          Active : They have been singing a folk song.

Passive : A folk song has been being sung by them.

-          Active : The dog has been eating sung by them.

Passive : The meat has been

14. Passive Voice sebagai Verb to be.

Verb to be dipakai sebagai auxilliary verb ( kata kerja bantu ) dan pada auxilliary ditambahkan past participle.

Example :

                 Active Voice                     Passive Voice
- We keep the butter here

- The broke the window

- People have seen wolves in the strees

- they are repairing the bridge- the buuter ia kept here

- The window was broken

- wolves have been seen in the streets

- the bridge is being repaired

15. passive Voice sebagai Auxilliary + Infinitive

Example :

                  Active Voice                                   Passive Voice
                            1                                      2
- You must shut these doors

- You ought to open the window

- They should have told him- These doors must be shut

- The windows ought to be open

- he should have been told

16. The Passive Gerund

The passive gerund mempunyai bentuk umum sebagai berikut “ Being + Past participle”

Example : Active : I  remember my father taking me to the zoo.

Passive : I remember being taken to the zoo by my father.

Sifat khusus Passive Voice

Dalam kalimat Passive, “pelaku” sering tidak disebutkan.

Example : Active : Daniel repaired the lamp

Passive : The lamp was repaired.

Jika “pelaku” disebutkan, maka pelaku dalam passive didahului dengan “by”.

Example :

                      Active Voice                          Passive Voice
- Can somebody do it?

- Has somebody done all the work?- Can it be done by somebody?

- Has all the work been done by somebody?

Jika “pelaku” dalam “passive” didahului dengan “with”, maka bentukny adalah sebagai berikut :

- Smoke filled the room

- Paint covered the lock.- The room was filled with smoke.

- The lock was covered with paint.

REFERENSI

Muhammad. 2002 . Panduan Bahasa Inggris Sehari-hari Three in one Grammar, Vocabulary, and Idiom. Surabaya: Halim Jaya Surabaya.

Team Yayasan Pendidikan Haster Bandung. 1995. Ikhtisar Materi-materi Penting Bahasa Inggris untuk SMU. Bandung: Pionir Jaya Bandung.

Budiman, Arif. 2002. Intisari tata Bahasa Inggris Untuk SMA. Bandung: CV. Pustaka setia Bandung.

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